What is the G20?
The G20 is a forum for multilateral cooperation made up of 19 major countries and the European Union (EU). The G20 represents more than 60% of the world’s population, 75% of world trade and 80% of world GDP. G20 members are South Africa, United States of America, Saudi Arabia, Argentina, Australia, Brazil, India, Indonesia, United Kingdom, Italy, Japan, Germany, Canada, Mexico, Republic of Korea, Russia, France, China and Turkey. , and the European Union.
History of the founding of the G20
Formed in 1999 on the initiative of the members of the G7, the G20 brings together developed and developing countries to jointly overcome crises, particularly those affecting Asia, Russia and Latin America. The goal of the G20 is to achieve strong, sustainable, balanced and inclusive global growth.
The G20 was originally a meeting of finance ministers and central bank governors. However, since 2008, the G20 has presented heads of state at summits, and in 2010 discussions were also initiated in the development sector. Since then, the G20 consists of the Finance Track and the Sherpa Track. Sherpa is taken from the term for guides in Nepal, describing how the G20 Sherpas paved the way for the Summit.
Type of G20 meeting
It is the culmination of the G20 meeting process, namely the meeting at Heads of State/Government level.
- Ministerial and Deputy Meetings/Ministerial and Deputy Meetings
- Held in each of the main focus areas of the forum. In finance, ministerial meetings bring together finance ministers and central bank governors, known as meetings of finance ministers and central bank governors (FMCBG). Meanwhile, the meeting of deputies is called the Meeting of Finance and Central Bank Deputies (FCBD).
Comprised of experts from G20 countries, working groups address specific issues related to the broader G20 agenda, which then feed into ministerial segments and finally the Summit.
Indonesia assumes G20 presidency
Unlike most multilateral forums, the G20 does not have a permanent secretariat. The presidency is exercised by one of the member states, which changes every year. As stipulated at the 2020 Riyadh Summit, Indonesia will assume the G20 Presidency in 2022, with the handover taking place after the Rome Summit (October 30-31, 2021).
2022 Theme of the Indonesian G20 Presidency
“Recover Together, Recover Stronger” Through this theme, Indonesia wants to invite the whole world to work hand in hand, to support each other to recover together and become stronger and more sustainable.
The mangrove forest is a community of tropical coastal vegetation that is dominated by several types of trees that can grow and develop in tidal areas and muddy beaches. Mangrove forests are found on beaches, shallow bays, estuaries, deltas and protected coastal areas. The mangrove ecosystems in Indonesia have the highest biodiversity in the world with a total of about 89 species consisting of 35 plant species, 9 shrub species, 9 liana species, 29 epiphyte species and 2 parasitic species.
There are many mangrove forests in Indonesia and almost all coastal or estuarine areas have mangroves. Mangrove forest is a type of forest that is still affected by tides because at high tide it will be flooded and at low tide it will be free from flooding.
Mangrove forests have a good impact on estuarine areas and on the humans who live around the coast. The benefits of mangrove forests are to protect the coast from abrasion and to provide food and shelter for marine and terrestrial organisms. The benefits of mangrove forests for humans are raw materials for fuel, alternative food ingredients, etc.
However, along with the development of the times and the number of people living in the coastal areas, some people use the mangrove land as residential land by cutting down the mangrove forests and also exploiting them on a large scale so that the mangrove forests decrease. Therefore, there is a need to carry out repair and restoration efforts so that the existing mangroves do not decline for the future of the next generation. The introduction of mangrove rehabilitation will motivate the community to reforest the coast and shoreline.
Functions and roles of mangrove rehabilitation
Rehabilitation of mangrove forests is carried out to restore and improve protective functions, conservation functions and production. The rehabilitation and conservation program aims to restore or improve the quality of degraded stands and to maintain them. This is done to maintain the function of the forest both as a producer of timber, protecting against seawater intrusion and abrasion, and as a support for life.
Rehabilitation of the mangrove forest is part of the mangrove forest management system which is an integral part of the integrated coastal zone management and is placed under the watershed framework (DAS) as a management unit. The envisaged rehabilitation of mangrove forests aims to restore damaged forest resources to optimal functioning by providing benefits to all interested parties, ensuring ecological balance and water management in watersheds ( DAS) and coastal areas, and supporting the continuity of the mangrove-based industry. Resources. This objective can be achieved if the management of the area is done properly, if there are strong institutions and if the appropriate rehabilitation technology is oriented towards clear use.
G20 links and platforms to learn about mangrove rehabilitation
Indonesia will describe its success in achieving mangrove and peat rehabilitation to the international community at the upcoming G20 forum. This was stated by Director General of Pollution and Environmental Damage Control (PPKL) of the Ministry of Environment and Forestry (KLHK) Sigit Reliantoro. KLHK Kebon Nanas Building, East Jakarta, Monday (13/6). In carrying out the rehabilitation of mangroves and peat, the Indonesian government has comprehensive regulations. Starting from Presidential Regulation number 73 of 2012 concerning the National Mangrove Ecosystem Management Strategy, to Presidential Regulation number 57 of 2016 establishing the Mangrove and Peat Restoration Agency.
“We will use this platform by involving various countries such as Congo, Peru and other G20 facilities to exchange experiences and information. If necessary, we invite them to study in Indonesia,” Sigit said. Earlier, Environment and Forestry Minister Siti Nurbaya revealed that at the G20 forum, Indonesia will address three main topics for discussion, namely supporting a more sustainable recovery, strengthening land and sea actions to support environmental protection and climate goals, and strengthen resource mobilization to support environmental protection and climate goals. , the three main topics that will be debated by the G20 countries can lead to solutions to environmental aspects and climate change. Another goal is also to meet the targets set in the Paris Agreement to limit the global temperature increase to 1.5 degrees Celsius. “G20 countries control around 80% of the global economy but also produce around 80% of global greenhouse gas emissions and plastic pollution. But at the same time, it is a strength to be able to respond and overcome the existing challenges,” said Siti.